Burning fat, losing weight
In sport, endurance is more than a monotonous 10km run. Endurance is such a broad area that the sprint over 100 meters is just as much an umbrella term as an iron man over more than 10 hours. Even in weight training there are forms of exercise that can be explained with the help of endurance.
Having good endurance is also able to increase the level of regeneration and mental resilience.
Endurance as a motoric ability is defined in the conditional area as the ability to maintain a sporting load as long as possible, to delay the loss of performance caused by fatigue for a long time and to be able to regenerate quickly after sporting loads.
An endurance performance is a performance that is performed over a longer period of time without the performance being interrupted due to excessive fatigue. Fatigue can occur both mentally and physically. Heart rate, lung function and blood pressure are increased during endurance performance. However, the muscles tire only late. One speaks of a so-called steady state in aerobic endurance. Here there is so little lactate that it can be metabolized again and fatigue does not occur. Outside of the steady state, lactate accumulates in the muscles, muscle burning occurs and performance is reduced. An endurance performance can be viewed as a long continuous performance, but also interval-like work over a long period of time corresponds to an endurance performance.
Endurance is basically divided into two areas.
1. The basic endurance represents a basis for endurance performance. This includes all forms of sport and health, preventive sport, rehabilitation sport and the development of general fitness. In addition, basic endurance is a prerequisite for developing further endurance skills. This means that a 100 meter runner needs basic endurance just as much as a cyclist. The acquisition of a solid basic endurance is not specific to the sport and is usually acquired through running, swimming, cycling.
2. However, if the development of endurance aims at performance in a certain sport such as (Tennis, soccer, handball, swimming etc.) one speaks of a special endurance (specific endurance). Above all, it is important to gear the training of endurance to the respective sport. According to this, the special endurance is divided into short-term endurance, medium-term endurance and long-term endurance.
More endurance topics
- Fat burning
- Endurance sports in childhood
- To run
- Running analysis
- Endurance diagnostics
- Heart rate
- Endurance tests
Which sports fall under endurance sports?
Typical endurance sports are e.g.
- Long distance running
- Jogging, road cycling
- Cross-country skiing
- To go biking
Endurance performance is also achieved in football or handball, but the focus here is on the alternation of strength, speed and stamina. It is less a question of pure endurance performance in which the pulse remains relatively constant over a long period of time (less than several hours), as do other cardiovascular parameters.
Read more on the topic: Endurance sports
How do I best train endurance?
In order to improve endurance, basic aerobic endurance should be improved on the one hand, and anaerobic endurance should also be trained on the other.
- Aerobic basic endurance training builds endurance, using the example of running. It is run at a comfortable pace so that it does not lead to fatigue. The heart rate is increased, but after a certain time it remains constant at the same level, the user does not get noticeably out of breath, he can cover the distance without any major problems.
- Anaerobic endurance training is more strenuous, here you train on the edge of the anaerobic threshold. A speed run would be an example of this. The performance is also carried out over a long period of time, but at the end of the training the user is exhausted, the muscles are burning and he is out of breath. An attempt is made to keep a pace that he can just hold out in order to create the given route. Interval training can also improve endurance. For a short time the body is heavily stressed, it falls into an oxygen debt, lactate accumulates, but this is followed by an interval of active regeneration, the oxygen debt is slowly compensated and a new load interval becomes possible. The intervals are also repeated over a certain period of time so that the ability to regenerate and exercise tolerance is trained.
Today we know that even short, intense interval training improves endurance.
Read more on the topic: How can you improve endurance?
How can you increase stamina through supplementation?
When it comes to endurance performance, the most important thing is to provide the body with sufficient energy. Carbohydrate supplements, which fill the energy stores, are therefore recommended before endurance work. Long-lasting carbohydrates are better suited for long-term energy supply, short-chain ones are used up quickly. In the case of very long loads, it makes sense to consume carbohydrates during endurance performance in order to refill the depleted stores.
However, proteins can also be added to prevent muscle mass loss during exertion. It is also important to compensate for the loss of fluids and, above all, the loss of electrolytes through sweating. For this purpose, e.g. Effervescent tablets with potassium, magnesium calcium and much more. because liquid is supplied at the same time as it is taken.
Read more on the topic: Supplements
Which fitness equipment improve endurance?
Aside from the strength endurance that can be performed on any strength machine by choosing the appropriate weights and performing the right number of reps and sets, there are some classic endurance (cardio) machines in every gym.
These include the stepper, cross trainer, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, spinning bike and rowing machine (dynamic, not strength machine). Some fitness studios also offer sit-down bicycles or arm bicycles. Usually you can set the difficulty here using levels or watts, often you will find a pulse information to control your performance.
Is it possible to build endurance and muscles at the same time?
The myth that either only muscle mass can be built or only endurance is trained is not true. Someone who trains for a marathon, however, will be grateful if their arm muscles don't increase too much at the same time. Muscles mean additional weight, which has to be transported through endurance performance.
For many sports, however, a healthy level of strength and endurance is usually healthier. Strength and endurance training should not take place in the same training session and ideally not on the same day, as both training stimuli are only optimally implemented by the body if there is sufficient regeneration in between. In order to prevent muscle loss during endurance performance, you should ensure that you eat enough protein-rich food.
Biological processes during endurance exercise
The human body works much like an engine. He needs fuel (ATP / adenosine triphosphate) to perform. In this case, performance is endurance. However, unlike the engine, the body does not have only one gas tank, but three types of "fuel" are available to it. The smallest energy store in the human body is the creatine phosphate store (KrP), it provides its energy immediately and is therefore required for very short and very high loads such as sprinting. The second, slightly larger reservoir consists of sugar (glucose / carbohydrates), and is important for endurance exercise with medium intensity (Run at about 11 km / h). The third energy store is the fat store. The fat storage of a man of normal weight is 100,000 kcal of energy, which would be sufficient for around 30 marathons. Fats are very rich in energy and even in marathon runners in excess, but it is very difficult to convert them into energy (Fat metabolism). This is also the reason why the human body uses sugar when it is exposed to higher levels.
Lactate measurements are used to objectively assess athletic performance. Lactate values give considerably more information about sporting loads and performance than heart rate and have therefore been used in competitive sports for decades. However, due to the high expenditure and the cost-benefit consideration, professional lactate measurement in recreational sports makes little sense.
In the field of sports science, lactate has long been a synonym for lactic acid. According to recent studies, however, lactate cannot be acidic because lactic acid breaks down into protons and lactate. Protons are positively charged particles and lactate are negative. So one should assume that lactate is basic and not acidic.
Here you can find detailed information on the topic
- Lactate level test
It is important to note that
If you start endurance training, the sugar is not burned first as previously assumed, but all energy stores are opened at the same time.Running at> 11km / h) on. Thus the body burns at lower loads (Walking or slow running 6 km / h) primarily endogenous fats.
What is lactate?
Lactate is the end product of the anaerobic / lactic metabolism. It occurs when there is insufficient oxygen in the muscles during sporting activities to cover the energy requirement.
With increasing exposure, the lactate concentration in the blood increases until the point in time at which the accumulation corresponds to the value of the breakdown. One speaks of the lactate steady state. This range is around 4 mmol / liter and is a guide value for athletic performance. Short: In the fitness and health sector, the 4mmol / l limit should not be exceeded.
Endurance and fat burning
In endurance training, the cardiovascular system is mainly trained; over a certain period of time, breathing rate, tidal volume, heart rate and stroke volume are increased and trained. For this we need energy that our body has to provide. As with any exertion, our body initially uses up existing energy reserves in the form of ATP (adenosine trisphosphate, fuel for the cell) and creatine phosphate (phosphate supplier for used ATP).
Then it begins to generate new ATP through glycolysis, i.e. the metabolism of carbohydrates, this takes place first anaerobically, then aerobically (without / with oxygen). After a certain start-up time, aerobic glycolysis can ensure a continuous supply of energy as long as the exertion is not too strong, so that oxygen consumption and absorption are in balance.
Under aerobic, i.e. oxygen-rich conditions, the fat metabolism is noticeably stimulated. The fat metabolism is also increased in the first few minutes with the other energy sources, but becomes more important, especially with longer work (from 30-45 min), when the carbohydrate and protein stores are used up. Long endurance training with a corresponding load level at which there is enough oxygen (you can still talk, basic endurance I) thus serves to burn fat.
Read more on the topic: Fat burning
Maximum oxygen uptake
The maximum oxygen uptake is the gross criterion for aerobic endurance performance. The name oxygen uptake is misleading because it does not mean the maximum uptake of oxygen through breathing, but the utilization of the oxygen absorbed through breathing in the cardiovascular system.
Indicators for the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) are the cardiac output (HMV) and the arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-v DO2).
Cardiac output is the amount of blood that the heart pumps into the circulation in one minute. The arteriovenous oxygen difference denotes the difference in the oxygen content in the pulmonary artery (venous blood) and the arterial blood, i.e. the difference in "O2" that is pumped in and comes out again.
It is calculated from the product of (HMV) and (a / vDO2).
Muscle fiber types
Endurance is to some extent dependent on the distribution of the Fibers of muscles.
One differentiates in slow-twitch muscle fibers (slow-twitch). They have a large number of mitochondria, myoglobin, are reddish in color and are particularly important for persistent stress. The fast-twitch muscle fibers (fast-twitch) have a greater anaerobic potential. They are therefore rich in phosphate and glycogen. They are more important for short, intense speed performances.
A conversion from fast-twitch fibers to slow-twitch fibers is possible and irreversible. It is not possible the other way around. The distribution of F-T fibers and S-T fibers is anatomically determined. Sprinters are born and marathon runners are trained.
As mentioned above, endurance is divided into a wide range. Endurance performance cannot be trained with just one method.
The focus of every training is the setting of goals. The training methods for endurance sports are divided into four areas. This is not just a matter of different orientations in the areas of intensity, stress, etc., but also the accentuated effect of the individual methods on the organism. Before starting any endurance training, however, a running analysis is advisable to determine your running style.
Read more about this at: Endurance training
Running - the endurance sport for body and mind
The permanent method
As the name duration suggests, this method involves endurance performance that is completed without interruptions. A certain distance is covered in a certain period of time. In the permanent method, three different methods are used.
Method: extensive permanent method
Exercise intensity: in the area of AS (1.5-2.5 mmolL / l.)
Heart rate: 130-150 beats / min.
Load duration: > 60 minutes
The extensive continuous method involves working with low loads. Accordingly, the area of application for this method is general leisure time, health training and acceleration of regeneration. In this stress phase it comes to Fat burning, the aerobic metabolism expands, the cardiovascular work is economized, and the peripheral blood circulation improves.
Method: intensive continuous method
Exercise intensity: in the range of ANS (3-4 mmolL / l.)
Heart rate: 150-180 beats / min.
Load duration: 30-60 min.
Compared to the extensive method, the stress is increased. In addition to the economization of Cardiovascular system to an increase in glycogen stores, which anaerobic threshold is increased, and the accumulated lactate can be better compensated. Especially when training for the marathon or Triathlon this method is used.
Method: Variable permanent method
Exercise intensity: alternating between aerobic and anaerobic
Heart rate: 130-180 beats / min.
Load duration: 30-60 min.
Since there is a change in the loads, this method is built into play sports as a training unit. The change between stress and recovery is trained. The conversion in the various energy supply zones will be improved. Lactate elimination is improved in the extensive phases
The interval method
The interval method is characterized by the rewarding breaks. This is an incomplete regeneration. There is a constant alternation between stress and recovery and thus an adaptation of the cardiovascular system. During the exertion there is increased cardiac pressure work and increased volume work during the breaks. This leads to an expansion of the interior of the heart (development of a sports heart). The interval method is divided into four different methods.
Extensive interval method with long-term intervals
Exercise intensity: in the area of the anaerobic threshold
Heart rate: 140 beats / min.
Load duration: 5-9 min.
Break: 2-3 min.
Load scope: 6- 10 loads
Since the load is chosen to be extensive with this method, the primary improvement in aerobic metabolism is. The Cardiovascular system is economized and the capillaries expand.
E.xtensive interval method with mean time intervals
Exercise intensity: above the anaerobic threshold (4-7 mmolL / l.)
Heart rate: 170 beats / min.
Load duration: 1- 3 min.
Break: 2 min.
Load scope: 10-12 loads
The exposure is above the anaerobic threshold. This means that lactate accumulates in the stress phases, which is broken down during the breaks. There is an expansion of the maximum oxygen uptake. The mixed aerobic-anaerobic energy supply is activated. This method is for long distance runners (marathon, Triathlon) particularly suitable.
Intensive interval method with short-term intervals
Exercise intensity: submaximal,> 8mmolL / l.
Heart rate: > 180 beats / min.
Load duration: 20-30 sec.
Break: 2 min.
Load scope: 12-15 loads
The adjustment phenomena can be compared with the extensive interval method with mean-time intervals.
I.Intensive interval method with extremely short-term intervals
Exercise intensity: maximum
Heart rate: > max. Beats / min.
Load duration: 10 sec.
Break: 2-3 min.
Load scope: 12-15 loads
Since the intensity of the stress is almost at its maximum, there is an accentuated stress on the Fast Twitch fibers. Lactate accumulates to a certain extent during exercise, which must be compensated for during breaks. This method is primarily used in short distance runners and in sports games.
The repetition method
Compared to the interval method, with the repetition method there is a complete regeneration in the break, the Heart rate should not be higher than 90-100 beats / minute at the beginning of the subsequent exercise. It is divided into three methods
Repetition method with long intervals
Exercise intensity: above the anaerobic threshold (7mmolL / l.)
Heart rate: 150 beats / min.
Load duration: 2-3 min.
Break: 10-12 min.
Load scope: 3- 5 loads
This leads to an improvement in lactate compensation and aerobic / anaerobic energy supply. This method is mainly used for medium to long-distance runners.
Repetition method with mean time intervals
Exercise intensity: submaximal
Heart rate: 170-180 beats / min.
Load duration: 45-60 sec.
Break: 10 min.
Load scope: 4- 6 loads
With this method, the anaerobic-lactic energy supply is trained. The glycogen store is increased. This method is used in the short-term endurance area.
Repetition method with mean time intervals
Exercise intensity: almost maximum
Heart rate: > 180 beats / min.
Load duration: 15-20 sec.
Break: 7-10 min.
Load scope: 6- 8 loads
During this training, the creatine phosphate stores (KrP) are depleted.
The F-T fibers are stressed.
This method is used in the sprint endurance area (stamina).
The competition method
In this method, there is a one-time exposure with a competitive character. Competitive functional states of the organ system are aimed for. This method is used especially before an important competition event in order to be able to adjust to the impending stress.
Endurance performance diagnostics
The endurance performance can be defined as performance (e.g. a distance) that can be achieved in a certain time (e.g. 60 minutes). In order to make endurance performance generally more comparable, there are certain established tests (e.g. Cooper, PWC) for endurance ability. The Cooper test evaluates endurance performance based on the meters covered in 12 minutes, taking gender and age into account.
In medicine, endurance performance can also be determined by ergometry based on certain parameters. The lactate concentration can be determined by blood tests, the pulse and blood pressure behavior can be determined by an EKG and the lung function can be analyzed by spirometry. In connection with the performance provided, the values give precise information about the endurance performance of a patient, taking into account the time.
Read more on the topic: Endurance performance diagnostics
Use heart rate monitors to improve endurance
Top athletes such as soccer players, marathon runners or competitive swimmers would not be able to survive a competition without a certain amount of perseverance. So that the body can withstand extreme loads under extreme conditions, you can use special endurance training increase efficiency over an extended period of time.
A good endurance contributes significantly to good health and a strong immune system at. Endurance training also has a positive effect on that Cardiovascular system off and lower that Heart attack risk.
Improve endurance: There are different ways to increase endurance. Most endurance training includes competitive sports such as cycling, To run, Cross-country skiing, rowing or swim.
Who his endurance want to improve, you have to train regularly. In endurance training, the goal should be to complete training times and distances without putting maximum stress on the heart rate.
But be careful: It should not be forgotten that the body needs time to regenerate, days off from training are a must!
Beginners in particular often run the risk of overdoing it during training and overexerting themselves and your body. To prevent this from happening, you can keep control with very simple means.
The heart rate monitor is a reliable and helpful companion for every training session. Regular heart rate measurements can be used to measure body behavior during sport and to check the requirements of the training plan. The progress measured in this way gives every athlete a positive feeling and encourages them to continue training. The training becomes more effective!
There are three different types of heart rate monitors:
- Heart rate monitor with chest sensor
First there is the device that takes the measurement with a chest sensor and transmits the results to a watch on the wrist.
- Heart rate monitor with finger sensor
There is also a measuring device with a finger sensor, where the sensor is attached directly to the heart rate monitor. If the athlete then wants to measure the current pulse, he only has to press his finger on the sensor for a few seconds.
- Heart rate monitor with ear sensor
And then there is the ear sensor. This is attached to the earlobe and usually transmits pulse signals to the heart rate monitor by cable.
But not every one Heart rate monitor is suitable for all sports. With the finger sensor and the ear sensor, for example, no permanent pulse measurement is possible. And transmission failures can also occur with the chest sensor from time to time.
Not only professional athletes benefit from regular endurance training with heart rate monitors. With consistent training and increased performance, anyone can become a marathon runner. Nothing stands in the way of the start of the next city marathon!
At this point we would like to point out that a detailed book by Tobias Kasprak and Dr. Nicolas Gumpert was fasted.
The latest scientific findings combined with sports medicine facts should help you to lose weight in a targeted manner. Exercises from strength and endurance training as well as tips on proper nutrition with the right diets are described in detail.
Also read our article Endurance sports and nutrition