The upper ankle


OSG, articulatio talocruralis


The upper ankle allows as one of two Ankle joints the movement between Lower leg and foot.
Here it unites an optimal combination of

  • Stability and
  • Agility.

It forms a functional unit with the lower ankle.

Hocks in general

The Ankle joint actually consists of two Joints. The upper and the lower ankle.

It provides the articulated connection between the lower leg, consisting of

  • Shin (Tibia) and
  • Fibula (Fibula) and
  • Foot.

The ankle joints must fulfill two essential properties. You need to stable and resilient be because they carry the entire body weight, but at the same time one high mobility allow to go and To run - even on uneven terrain - to ensure.

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Who am I?
My name is dr. Nicolas Gumpert. I am a specialist in orthopedics and the founder of .
Various television programs and print media report regularly about my work. On HR television you can see me live every 6 weeks on "Hallo Hessen".
But now enough is indicated ;-)

Athletes (joggers, soccer players, etc.) are particularly often affected by diseases of the foot. In some cases, the cause of the foot discomfort cannot be identified at first.
Therefore, the treatment of the foot (e.g. Achilles tendonitis, heel spurs, etc.) requires a lot of experience.
I focus on a wide variety of foot diseases.
The aim of every treatment is treatment without an operation with a complete restoration of performance.

Which therapy achieves the best results in the long term can only be determined after looking at all of the information (Examination, X-ray, ultrasound, MRI, etc.) be assessed.

You can find me in:

  • Lumedis - your orthopedic surgeon
    Kaiserstrasse 14
    60311 Frankfurt am Main

Directly to the online appointment arrangement
Unfortunately, it is currently only possible to make an appointment with private health insurers. I hope for your understanding!
You can find more information about me at Dr. Nicolas Gumpert

Upper ankle illustration

Illustration of the upper ankle joint of the right foot (from the side and from the rear)

I - Upper ankle
(Joint line green) -
Articulatio talocruralis

  1. Shin -
  2. Fibula -
  3. Ankle bone -
  4. Heel bone -
  5. Achilles tendon -
    Tendo calcaneus
  6. Fibula-calcaneus tape -
    Calcaneofibular ligament
  7. Hint. Shin-fibula
    Ligament (posterior syndesmosis ligament)
    Posterior tibiofibular ligament
  8. Front Fibula ankle ligament -
    Ligamentum fibulotalare anterius
  9. Delta band -
    Deltoid ligament

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations

Ankle Joint - Anatomy

The upper ankle consists of the articular surface of the lower leg (Crus), that is

  • Shin (Tibia) and the
  • Fibula (Fibula) as well as the
  • Ankle bone (Talus), one of the Tarsus.

The tibia and fibula with their distended joint ends form the so-called Malleole fork (Malleolus = ankle), which is the ankle roll (Trochlea tali) encloses the uppermost part of the ankle bone. The distended end of the bone of the tibia, which corresponds to the inner part of the malleolar fork, forms the Inner ankle, the lower end of the bone of the fibula, i.e. the outer part of the malleolar fork, forms the Outer ankle. The one encircled by the malleolar fork Trochlea tali is 4-5 mm wider at the front than at the back. This peculiarity is functionally important (see below).

Ligamentous apparatus of the upper ankle joint

The OSG (Oberes S.jumpGelenk) is secured by ligaments in addition to the bone guide. The Tapesthat as so-called Syndesmosis (Syndesmosis tibiofibularis) Clamping the malleolar fork and thus stabilizing it are already part of the ligaments of the OSG (Ore S.jumpGelenk).

This includes that

  • Anterior tibiofibular ligament and the
  • Ligemantum tibiofibulare posterius.

Since the OSG (Ore S.jumpGelenk) a pure Hinge joint is there are side ligaments (Collateral ligaments), which is a lateral movement of the Foot in the OSG (Ore S.jumpGelenk). They move from the malleoli (ankles) to the closest ones Tarsus.

In detail, these are on the outer ankle

  • Anterior talofibular ligament,
  • Posterior talofibular ligament and
  • Calcaneofibular ligament.

In their entirety, they are simply referred to as the outer ligament of the foot. These tapes prevent one Varization or Inversion / supination of the foot (i.e. an inward rotation, as you do when you want to look at the sole of the foot).

The collateral ligament of the inner ankle is the broad one Deltoid ligamentwhich consists of four parts:

  • Pars tibiotalaris anterior,
  • Pars tibiotalaris posterior,
  • Pars tibiocalcanea and
  • Pars tibionaviculare.

This tape prevents that Valgization or Eversion / Pronation of the foot (i.e. the outward rotation).

Illustration of the outer ankle with a torn ligament

  1. Ligamentum fibulotalare posterius
  2. Fibulocalcaneare ligament
  3. Ligamentum fibulotalare anterius
  4. Fibula
  5. Shinbone (tibia)
  6. Talus bone
  7. Scaphoid bone (navicular bone)
  8. Sphenoid bone (os cuniforme)
  9. Metatarsal bone
  10. Cuboid bone (Os cuboideum)

Function of the upper ankle

The upper ankle is a pure one Hinge joint, so there is only one movement axis with two possible movements:

  • the Dorsiflexion (Increase) and
  • Plantar flexion (Diffraction) des Foot.

Based on the Neutral zero position of the joint (i.e. the foot resting flat on the floor), dorsiflexion up to a maximum of 30 degrees and plantar flexion up to a maximum of 50 degrees is possible. In dorsiflexion, the anterior part of the lower articular surface, the Trochlea tali, firmly wedged in the malleolar fork, as its width in the front part fits perfectly into the malleolar fork.

Since it is 4-5 mm narrower at the back, i.e. at the front, this also means that the malleolar fork is too wide for the plantar flexion Trochlea tali. This explains why the highest stability of the foot is guaranteed in the crouching position (for example when skiing), while the foot is the most unstable and therefore most susceptible to injuries, for example when hiking downhill or simply tiptoeing or climbing stairs.

Therefore ligament injuries occur on upper ankle by twisting an ankle more often in situations in which the foot is currently plantar flexed.

Clinical evidence

The most common violation of the Hocks is the so-called Supinations- or Inversion trauma of the upper ankle.

Here, the foot bends inward, which leads to overstretching and possibly a Rupture (Crack) of the outer bands. Such an injury can be caused by the fracture (fracture) Of Outer ankle (Lateral malleolus), i.e. the lowest part of the Fibula, accompanied.