Vaccination against rubella
Rubella infection is a viral disease that spreads around the world and occurs primarily in childhood. The Standing Vaccination Commission of the Robert Koch Institute, or STIKO for short, issues the vaccination recommendations applicable to Germany. This includes the vaccination against rubella, usually in combination with vaccinations against measles and mumps as a so-called MMR vaccination. The first vaccination should be given in the first 11 to 14 months of life, the second in the second year of life.
Please also read: Vaccinations in the baby
Read more on the topic: MMR vaccination
Already in 2008, vaccination coverage rates for school beginners of around 95% for the first vaccination and around 88% for the second vaccination were achieved. The aim of the WHO was the rubella and especially the existing danger of one Infection in the womb to be eliminated completely by 2010. Due to concerns from some opponents of vaccination, this goal has not yet been fully achieved.
Advantages and disadvantages of the rubella vaccination
Of course, the advantages and disadvantages of any medical treatment must be weighed and acted accordingly. With the rubella vaccination, however, clearly outweigh the advantages (Please also read: Does vaccination do more harm than good?). She offers that only effective protection from a rubella infection. In combination with the vaccines for measles, mumps and Chickenpox (varicella) (MMRV vaccination) the most important and most common childhood diseases are covered and prevented.
Also Pregnant women and theirsn unborn babies are given a correspondingly high vaccination rate protected from serious and dramatic complications. In addition, children who cannot receive a vaccination for various medical reasons benefit from this protection. Accordingly, teething problems should by no means be taken lightly. The Side effects the MMRV vaccination, for example fever or a headache, are easy to accept against this background. With high vaccination rates, rubella can be eradicated across Germany. Everyone is asked to do their part for their own good and the common good.
When should the baby be vaccinated?
If the mother has already suffered a rubella infection in her childhood or received two rubella vaccinations, the newborn initially has a certain "nest protection" from the mother's antibodies. However, this continues to decrease from week to week and therefore cannot replace a vaccination.
According to the STIKO recommendation, the first rubella vaccination should therefore take place in the first 11 to 14 months of life. The second then from the second year of life in the period of 15-23 months of life. Vaccination before the age of 9 months is not recommended, as the effect is weakened by the immaturity of the child's immune system and the mother's antibodies. It should only be considered in exceptional cases, such as a rubella outbreak. Should the child be in a community facility, e.g. If, for example, you attend a daycare center or are looked after by a childminder, the vaccination can already be carried out after the 9th month of life.
Read more on this topic:
- Rubella in the baby
- Should I get my baby vaccinated?
- Nest protection - what is it?
Who should be vaccinated as an adult?
Every adult should be against rubella vaccinatewhen the Vaccination status unclear or if there is no or only one of the two rubella vaccinations. After a rubella infection in childhood, there tends to be lifelong protection. Since rubella is clinically difficult to differentiate from other childhood diseases, it cannot be assumed with certainty that the rubella virus was behind the disease. In rare cases is even if you have had rubella infection renewed infection possible. Therefore, all adults who have already had rubella should also get the vaccination afterwards.
Especially Women of childbearing age should check whether they had two rubella vaccinations in childhood. The effects of a Rubella Infection During Pregnancy in unvaccinated women are dramatic and dangerous to the child. It is easy to give the unborn child adequate protection in the womb via the rubella vaccination. Unvaccinated women and women with an unclear vaccination status should urgently get the two rubella vaccinations at least four weeks apart. If there is only one vaccination, it is recommended to have the second vaccination as well. This assessment corresponds to the current recommendations of the STIKO to prevent a (congenital) Rubella Syndrome in Children. Depending on the week of pregnancy, that is Risk of complications correspondingly high. In the first eight weeks, there is a probability of up to 90% of cases causing damage to the unborn child. The first to fourth months are Miscarriages are not uncommon. The conclusion: For your own protection and for the protection of the pregnant woman, a catch-up vaccination should be given if the rubella vaccination is missing.
When does the vaccination need to be refreshed?
The second vaccination is necessary because some people still have it after the first vaccination insufficient protection against which rubella developed. They are known as Non-responders or Vaccination failure. The second vaccination is therefore not for the refreshment, but rather for Closing this vaccination gap. The probability of adequate protection against rubella is therefore increased with the second vaccination.
Many parents want to spare their children the second vaccination. A Titer control after the first vaccination to check the success of the vaccination tends to be possible, but not useful. Often it happens to false positive test resultsthat simulate adequate vaccination protection. In addition, a Blood withdrawal necessary, which is more invasive and usually more stressful for the child than re-vaccination.
Can I get the rubella vaccine during pregnancy / breastfeeding?
If before pregnancy no vaccination took place and no rubella infection was experienced in childhood, got to any contact with potential sick people avoided become. Unfortunately, in pregnancy there is no possibility of getting the vaccination afterwards. The MMR vaccine is one Live vaccine of the should not be administered during pregnancy. Even after this type of vaccination, pregnancy should be avoided within the next month as there is an increased risk of numerous malformations in the unborn child. However, if a vaccination has taken place, this is not a criterion for an abortion.
In contrast, vaccination is possible at any time during breastfeeding. Even babies who are still breastfed can receive a rubella vaccination without any problems.
Unvaccinated pregnant women should keep the risk of infection as low as possible and avoid events with many small children. Children in the vicinity of a pregnant woman can still be vaccinated against rubella. As a result, they do not pose a threat to the pregnant woman, but rather protect them from a rubella infection from the surrounding area.
Single vaccination or combined vaccination?
Generally be Combination vaccines preferred to individual vaccines. This has the simple advantage that, for example, with the MMR vaccine instead of three syringes only requires a single injection is. Especially in children, this reduces the emotional stress during the doctor's visit.
There is no need to fear that the immune system will be overwhelmed by combination vaccines, as the immune system reacts quickly and adequately to the antigens administered even in childhood. A Combination vaccine is no worse tolerated than a single vaccine. Rather, the single injection reduces the possibility of side effects. There is also less chance of a local reaction because there is only one injection site. The second MMR vaccination is often combined with a vaccination against chickenpox (varicella) (MMRV vaccination). There are no real disadvantages of the combination vaccine compared to the individual vaccines.
How often should the vaccinations be given?
The interval between the two vaccinations should be be at least four weeks. It is best to set a date for the second vaccination at the first vaccination. Statistics show that the second vaccination is often no longer noticed because it is either forgotten or is considered unimportant. In order to avoid this, it is advisable to make an appointment as soon as possible. If the second vaccination is still forgotten, there is one Catching up at any time, even years later, is possible and also makes sense.
Risks of rubella vaccination
Side effects of rubella vaccination are more likely to occur in adults and, rarely, in children. These include unspecific reactions from the body such as a rash, swelling of the lymph nodes, fever, and headache or body aches. Joint discomfort and pain can also occur. The rubella infection can also develop in a milder form.
The MMR vaccine contains attenuated pathogens that have been grown in chicken eggs. You get minimal, if any, barely detectable traces of chicken protein. Studies have shown that children with a previously known egg allergy did not react to the MMR vaccine. Only children who show very severe symptoms even with the smallest amounts of chicken protein need to be closely monitored after the vaccination. In the event of uncertainty, the pediatrician should always be involved, who can discuss the risk in a detailed discussion.
In any case, the benefits of the rubella vaccination outweigh the actual risks.
This topic might interest you auxh: Vaccination side effects
By injection it can too local pain and Hypersensitivity come at the puncture site. Also can Sore throat, head or limbs occur. Joint pain occur mainly in adults and can last for several weeks.