A mole, known in medicine as a nevus, is a benign proliferation of pigment-forming cells, the so-called melanocytes. Moles are common and found in almost everyone. The majority of liver spots are acquired, which means that they only appear in the course of life. Moles that have existed since birth, i.e. are congenital, are less common. Congenital moles can also be called birthmarks. Moles can change shape and color over time, but they can also recede completely. The majority of liver spots are harmless neoplasms that do not require any therapy. However, certain forms of liver spots carry the risk of malignant degeneration. This means that some liver spots can develop into a malignant cancer called malignant melanoma (black skin cancer).
In order to recognize and treat the process of malignant degeneration at an early stage, it is important to have moles at regular intervals from a specialist in dermatology (Dermatologist) to be checked, for example if a mole itches. In particular, moles that change in color (for example a mole that turns black) and shape (for example, a mole that is growing larger or growing unevenly) should be checked regularly. In addition, itchy, oozing, aching, stinging, burning and bleeding moles can indicate the development of a malignant melanoma. Moles, which indicate a malignant degeneration, are surgically removed by a dermatologist at an early stage.
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Liver spots are caused by a Multiplication of pigment-forming cells, the Melanocytes. Why these cells multiply has not yet been conclusively clarified. It is assumed that genetically modified precursor cells of the pigment-forming melanocytes in the skin immigrate, multiply there, then pile up in the form of nests and thus form a mole. Melanocytes are able to produce a brown dye that Melanin to produce, causing the mole brown or black looks like.
In contrast, influencing factors that can promote the appearance of moles are clearly identified. These influencing factors play a particular role in the acquired, so the liver spots that develop in the course of life play a major role.
Count among them UV radiation (for example at Sunbathing in summer), hormonal Changes (for example in the context of puberty or in the form of Skin changes during pregnancy), family history or one weakened immune defense (for example if there is an infection).
The influencing factor UV radiation, in particular, can also cause a pathological change in existing moles.
One differentiates from the acquired liver spots innate Moles that are already in the birth available. A family disposition is assumed here in particular.
There are also various clinical pictures (for example the Neurofibromatosis), which, in addition to other symptoms, can lead to the appearance of numerous moles due to mutation of the melanocytes. Changes to existing moles can have various causes.
Changes in liver spots are often not based on pathological processes. For example, it can be very dry skin too strong Itching of the skin that also affects the moles, so that the mole itches too. Excessive scratching of itchy skin and itchy moles can lead to bleeding and the mole can bleed as well.
Still, changes to moles should be like a change in Shape, size or color, as well as the sudden appearance of Itching, oozing, pain, stinging and burning, as well as bleeding moles should always be taken seriously, as in the worst case they can lead to the development of a malignant cancer Melanoma can suggest.
Malignant melanoma needs one immediate treatment.
Liver spots are sharply demarcated, brown to black colored spots of different localization, varying in size and shape, which usually do not cause any symptoms.
Symptoms that can appear over time include changes in shape, size, or color, sudden itching, oozing, pain, stinging, burning, and bleeding from liver spots. If such changes occur on liver spots, it is advisable to consult a specialist in dermatology (dermatologist), as these changes can also be based on malignant processes that require immediate treatment. Since moles can vary depending on their shape, color, size and location, in some cases there may be an aesthetic impairment to the person affected, which is why moles can also be treated for cosmetic reasons.
The mole is bleeding
Moles that are in unfavorable places with a lot of friction, for example on the waistband, ankles or armpits, are more prone to small bleeding. Itching as a result of the smallest injuries caused by friction can also lead to bleeding. But it can also be a malignant development that hides behind the itching and bleeding. Bleeding is therefore suspect for a malignant skin cancer. You should therefore have such a mole examined by a dermatologist as soon as possible. Malignant growths are usually well supplied with blood and have an easily damaged surface. As a result, they are particularly prone to friction and injury.
Read more on the topic: Mole bleeds - how dangerous is that?
Moles shouldn't change much in the course of life. Encrustations, bleeding, itching or the like should therefore be viewed as critical. Especially in combination with each other, these symptoms should not be ignored, but rather lead to a visit to the dermatologist. Encrustations can also occur due to minor injuries. Itching is also not a rare symptom. Nevertheless, the mole should always be examined to rule out a malignant disease.
Mole grows / swells
A mole that changes in appearance within a short or even longer period of time is initially to be viewed as suspicious of a malignant disease. Not every malignant skin cancer manifests itself through proliferating tissue, but there are also types of skin cancers that stand out precisely because of this. If you notice that a mole has grown or swollen, it is advisable to consult a dermatologist as soon as possible. This can look at the mole and assess whether it is a suspicious finding. Extra itching is also a suspicious symptom of malignant mole development. If so, he'll remove the mole and examine the tissue under a microscope.
Read more on the topic: How can you recognize skin cancer?
Itchy mole- evidence of malignancy / skin cancer?
Black skin cancer, also known as malignant melanoma, is becoming increasingly important in the population. The number of new cases has increased dramatically in the last 50 years, which can be attributed to various factors. Many people therefore not only attend skin cancer screening at their dermatologist or family doctor, but also regularly keep an eye on their moles and moles themselves. Above all, the question arises as to how one can recognize a malignant mole at all and which symptoms are to be rated as suspicious.
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First of all, itching is not necessarily associated with a malignant skin disease. A mole can also be itchy due to dry skin or some other skin condition. Nevertheless, if you have an itchy mole you should consult a dermatologist and have the stain examined as soon as possible. A malignant development of the mole can also lead to itching. Liver spots, which also show other typical signs of malignant skin cancer, are particularly suspicious. This includes, for example, a blurry border, bleeding, crusting, pain or an irregular coloration of the stain. Itching that is sharply limited to the mole and does not also affect other parts of the skin is suspect.The latter would, for example, suggest another underlying skin disorder that is causing the itching.
Find out more about the topic: Symptoms of skin cancer
What to do if you have an itchy mole?
If a mole itches, you should refrain from using any ointments or the like. If there is a skin disease, ointments and creams that were previously used can affect the appearance of the skin. As a result, a dermatologist cannot assess the complexion in its original state. Slight cooling, for example in the form of a wet washcloth, can relieve the itching in the acute situation. An itchy birthmark or mole should then be examined promptly by a dermatologist to clarify the cause. One should absolutely refrain from scratching the mole, even if it is difficult to do so. Scratching only leads to further irritation and can even encourage infection. A small plaster can help to shield the itchy mole a little, as contact with clothing can increase the itching.
The majority of moles are harmless neoplasms. Still, changes to liver spots such as a Change of shape, size or color, as well as the appearance of bleeding, itchy, sore, oozing, or new liver spots draw the attention of those affected and be introduced to a specialist in dermatology (dermatologist). The dermatologist can use various examination techniques to identify harmless moles from malignant moles that lead to the development of a malignant melanoma (black Skin cancer) can lead, differentiate and, if necessary, initiate early treatment. But also inconspicuous moles, for example, should be included in the Skin cancer screenings be checked at regular intervals by a dermatologist.
As a rule, the dermatologist's examination begins with an examination of all moles with the help of a special one Magnifying glass, the Dermatoscope. This allows the dermatologist to view the liver spots under magnification and lighting. The dermatologist follows the so-called ABCDE scheme in front:
- A stands for asymmetry (an irregular mole is suspicious)
- B stands for border (an irregular or frayed border of the mole is suspicious)
- C stands for coloring (a multi-colored mole or a change in color, for example a sudden black coloration of the mole is suspicious)
- D stands for diameter (moles that increase in size or larger than 6 millimeters are suspect)
- E stands for sublimity (a mole protruding from the skin level is suspicious). Point E also includes the development of the mole.
Moles, which suddenly bleeding, itching, pain or oozing, count as suspicious. The more criteria of this ABCDE scheme apply, the more likely it is that the examined mole is a malignant one. However, complete certainty as to whether it is a benign or malignant mole is only provided by a histological examination of the mole by a pathologist. For this purpose, tissue samples of the suspicious mole must be obtained, which are ultimately under a microscope can be viewed. Here, healthy cells can be differentiated from degenerate cells. The removal of Tissue samples often takes place as part of a biopsy, in which parts of the suspicious mole are obtained. However, the suspicious mole often becomes simple removed as a whole.
Liver spots usually do not need to be treated because they are usually harmless neoplasms. Bleeding, itchy, or painful moles that are changes in shape, size, and color should always be treated as they can increase the risk of developing a malignant cancer called malignant melanoma. The timing of therapy is particularly important. The earlier the suspicious mole is treated, the better the prognosis. Treatment for suspicious moles consists of surgical removal. Surgical removal of the suspicious mole is carried out as a whole and with a safety distance of about two centimeters from the healthy tissue. In addition, the affected area of skin must be operated sufficiently deeply, i.e. all skin layers down to the muscles in the affected area are completely resected. This ensures that no degenerate cells remain on the affected skin area, which reduces the risk of cancer precursors recurring in the same area. The suspicious mole can be removed under local anesthesia. This means that general anesthesia is not required for this procedure, only an anesthetic (pain-relieving drug) has to be injected into the affected skin area.
The removed mole is then sent to a pathologist, who examines the mole under a microscope and classifies it as benign or malignant. Depending on the results of the examination by the pathologist, further examinations may follow.
But not only moles, which show suspicious changes such as itching, pain, oozing, color change or bleeding, are surgically removed. Liver spots, which, due to their shape, color, size or location, lead to a cosmetic impairment of the person concerned, can also be surgically removed.
Read more on the topic: Remove the mole
As moles are usually harmless neoplasms the prognosis for moles is usually good. If moles show changes, such as a change in shape, size or color, or if moles begin to itch, ooze, pain or bleed, no statement can initially be made about the prognosis of the changed mole. Itchy, sore, bleeding, or changing appearance of moles can on the one hand on the emergence of a malignant cancer, the malignant Melanoma (Black Skincancer), on the other hand, these changes can also be completely harmless in nature. For this reason, an examination of the cells of the changed mole is necessary.
Know the changed mole healthy cells on, is the prognosis Well, however, he knows degenerated Cells on, deteriorated the forecast.
If the degenerate Cells early can be discovered and removed, however, there is a chance of complete cure.
The formation of moles cannot be prevented. However, you can reduce factors that can influence the development of liver spots or a pathological change in existing liver spots up to the development of malignant melanoma (black skin cancer). This includes in particular the Reduction of UV radiationwhich as a major factor in the development of the malignant Melanoma applies. The risk can be reduced by avoiding an above-average exposure to the sun and avoiding the midday sun in summer, but also by avoiding sun beds. Furthermore, a suitable sun protection in the form of Suntan lotion or Protective clothing to pay attention. It showed that in particular Childhood sunburns Increase the risk of malignant melanoma, so that the measures mentioned should be particularly important, especially in children. Since the prognosis of early cancer precursors is significantly better, participation in one is also recommended regular skin cancer screening. This early detection examination for skin cancer is offered to those with statutory health insurance from the age of 35 every two years and is financed by health insurance companies. People who have family members who already have malignant melanoma (black skin cancer) should take advantage of skin cancer screening annually.
In addition, it is advisable to examine your own moles yourself at regular intervals. Like the specialist in dermatology (dermatologist), you can also look for the ABCDE scheme Action. It is important to recognize a mole that itches, bleeds, hurts, changes shape, size or color and interprets this as a warning signal. In any case, you should then see a dermatologist, even if not every molethat itches, bleeds or hurts, changes shape, size or color, is cancerous.
Read more on the topic: Skin cancer screening