An acute one Gastrointestinal inflammation, also gastroenteritis called, is caused by pathogenic agents such as bacteria, Viruses and Parasites triggered. This colonize the intestinal mucosa and feed through different mechanisms diarrhea.
Most frequently are infections with Noro- and rotaviruses. Almost all pathogens cause similar complaintsso that no specific pathogen can be identified in this way. Accompanying symptoms can nausea, Vomit, fever and Stomach cramps be. The severity of the disease ranges from a slight discomfort to a life-threatening infection.
While the symptoms in healthy Adults often self-limiting and subside within a few days, you should be with the elderly and children due to the large Fluid loss Be careful. Since the pathogens are excreted with vomit and in the stool, they can quickly transmitted from person to person become. Depending on the type of pathogen, the duration of the infection varies.
The sudden onset of symptoms is characteristic of gastroenteritis. The person concerned feels energized and limp.
The first symptoms, usually diarrhea, appear in the first four to 48 hours after infection. If the stool is fluid more than three times a day, it is called diarrhea. Vomiting, high body temperature, and abdominal cramps may also occur. Headaches and body aches are also not uncommon. The symptoms vary depending on the pathogen.
Read more on the subject at: Bowel movements like water
In most cases the symptoms subside after a few days. However, if the diarrhea lasts longer than two weeks, a doctor should be contacted urgently.
If the diarrhea is extremely severe, signs of dehydration may appear. These include lightheadedness, dizziness, and dark urine. A doctor should also be contacted in the case of particularly pronounced symptoms, such as high fever or painful cramps.
This is one of the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections Norovirus. It is worldwide spread. About 30% of gastroenteritis with children and 50% the gastrointestinal inflammation in adults are triggered by the virus. Infections are particularly common among people under five and over 70 years of age. In Retirement homes, clinics and social institutions because of this it can become a rapid spread of the norovirus come. Especially in the cold season the infections increase between October and March.
First and foremost it will be the virus transmitted from person to person. Already an extremely small number of 10 to 100 virus particles is sufficient for infection. Six to 50 hours after infection kick the first symptoms on. The risk of infection is particularly high in this phase, as in the symptomatic phase. The acute course is characterized by gushing vomiting and severe diarrhea. Most of time symptoms subside after 12 to 48 hours. You will be of one pronounced feeling of illness accompanied by pain in the limbs and headaches, weakness and abdominal cramps.
That too Rotavirus finds worldwide Distribution. It causes a large number of gastrointestinal infections Children. Due to the high risk of infection, most children have already been infected by the age of five. Between February and April one can observe a high number of diseases.
Because the virus in large quantities passed in the stool infection occurs from person to person in most cases. An infection can also occur after contact with contaminated surfaces and subsequent ingestion through the mouth. Usually it takes one to three days until the onset of the disease. Infected people shed the virus for up to eight days. The onset is characterized by sudden diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. In addition to mucus in the stool, fever, runny nose and cough can occur. At Young children and infants the symptoms last between two and six days on.
Not just viruses, but also bacteria can cause gastrointestinal inflammation. With the help of different mechanisms they develop their pathogenic effect. Some bacteria stimulate the intestinal cells to increase the release of fluids and electrolytes. Others destroy cells or penetrate intestinal cells and develop their infectious effect there.
Gastrointestinal inflammation from eating
Salmonella are common bacterial pathogens that in the warm season Find dissemination. Your transfer takes place through foodthat previously in contact with human or animal excrement came. Depending on the amount of bacteria ingested, the time span from infection to onset of the disease is five to 70 hours. Salmonella manifest themselves in the intestinal lining.
With the help of Cell toxins cause one local inflammation. The course forms vary greatly. While in some cases there are no symptoms whatsoever, in others a more pronounced symptom is caused. Slight diarrhea, one feverish Intestinal inflammation with blood contamination and severe Pain can accompany the infection.
One of the most common travel illnesses is that Traveller's diarrhea. Especially when staying in the Tropics and subtropics infections with unknown bacterial pathogens occur. Insufficient hygienic conditions and the local cuisine favor the outbreak. The regionally different composition of the intestinal flora is unbalanced. Watery diarrhea and Stomach cramps are the consequence. In most cases the symptoms subside after a few days.
The so-called Irritable stomach syndrome can through emotional stress be evoked. The gastrointestinal tract has its own Nervous system. Certain Messenger substances and Hormones control the activity of the Intestines and the production of digestive juices. Also in brain become similar messenger substances produced. In this way the nervous system of the Digestive tract and the brain connected.
With emotional Stress and anxiety will especially Dopamine poured out. Its stimulating effect can Diarrhea, gas and severe stomach cramps cause. Serotonin on the other hand one unfolds inhibiting effect. As a result more difficult depressions it is increasingly produced. Bloating, abdominal cramps, constipation and bloating can result
Also alcohol affects negative on the complaints and should be for this reason be avoided. In addition, it weakens the immune system. It is advisable to refrain from alcohol for some time after the symptoms have subsided.
Even if gastroenteritis usually only lasts a few days, proper fluid and food intake is important. Sick people should also save physically. Vomiting and diarrhea go with you Loss of fluids and electrolytes hand in hand. To compensate for the loss are suitable unsweetened tea and water without carbonic acid. On soft drinks, as well as juices should be avoided. Their high sugar content, as well as the fruit acid it contains, also irritates the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Sugar is also osmotically active and can even promote diarrhea.
Especially Children and the elderly are from Electrolyte deficiency endangered. To fix this, in Pharmacies so-called Electrolyte powder available. If the symptoms persist, a presentation in the hospital be considered. There can be the lack of fluids and salts with the help of a infusion or a nasogastric tube. An oral rehydration solution ensures the right balance of table salt, potassium chloride and glucose.
Much of the gastroenteritis can be done without Medication be treated. In some cases, however, pathogen-specific or symptom-relieving agents are used. At a Traveller's diarrhea may be the disease with a specific antibiotic be treated. These include infections with bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella or E. coli. The active substance Loperamide is a Opioid and inhibits intestinal activity. In this way, it reduces the number of diarrhea. The swelling substance pectin is not only consumed with grated apples, but is also available as a separate remedy for diarrhea. Activated carbon belongs to the group of Adsorbents and binds not only toxic substances but also bacteria and their toxins.
Read more on the subject at: Medicines for gastrointestinal diseases
The well-known home remedy Cola and pretzel sticks represents not an optimal therapy en gastrointestinal inflammation.
cola is due to the carbonic acid and des high sugar content not recommended.
Pretzel Sticks supply the body with sodiumbut do not contain potassium. fennel- or fennelanise-Caraway seedTea, on the other hand, is one of the tried and tested home remedies. He soothes the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and relieves nausea. chicken broth not only compensates for the loss of fluid, but also supplies the body with electrolytes.
If drinks are well tolerated again, you can slowly begin to consume solid food. They are best suited for this dry rusks, boiled potatoes or mashed bananas With oatmeal. Another home remedy is this grated apple. Its effect is based on the pectins it contains, which bind water in the intestine and thus help reduce diarrhea.
In diagnostics, the anamnese an important role. Questions about the nature and frequency of bowel movements are just as much a part of it, as is information about other symptoms and past ones to travel. Imported food, Pre-existing illness and medication taken should also be inquired about.
Information about the illness of relatives or people in the immediate vicinity, as well as the time interval between ingestion and the outbreak, can be helpful in making a diagnosis.
For persistent and very severe diarrhea should be doctor to be visited. Stool and intestinal mucosa samples can be used for more detailed diagnostics. They serve the microbiological examination. Also serological tests in the blood are helpful in finding a diagnosis.
The prognosis of gastroenteritis is good for the most part.
When infected with the common Norovirus, the symptoms subside few days to.
In the case of one Food poisoning can the complaints disappear after just 24 hours.
The not harmless Amoebic dysentery can against it some weeks last long.
Should the first symptoms of gastrointestinal inflammation appear, the Spread can be prevented. The daily walk to work, school and close human contact is not recommended. Since there is a high load of the pathogenic agent in the stool and vomit, the Hygiene in the foreground. Repeated Wash your hands and disinfect after using the toilet is important. Even the toilet itself should be cleaned and disinfected. The Bed linen and clothes the affected person can be freed from the pathogen at high temperatures (60 ° C or better 90 ° C).
So far there is one Oral vaccination against Rotaviruses. Active immunization can help Infants from the sixth week of life are used.
To prevent the Traveller's diarrhea some measures are useful. Tap water should one before use boil. When buying water bottles, ensure that they are properly closed and largely avoid ice cubes and ice cream. Eating Care should be taken with raw or undercooked seafood, fish or meat.