In the Ribose is it a Sugar component of ribonucleic acid. Ribose is found in the nucleotides. These are molecules that are the smallest Components of the nucleic acid are contained and represent the smallest unit of information in the network, which enables the coding of the genetic code in DNA and RNA. The human body can synthesize ribose from other simple sugars (= monosaccharides) itself via the so-called pentose phosphate cycle.
Ribose also makes a contribution to the energy supply of the muscle / muscle cells with ATP (= adenosine triphosphate). ATP is consumed by the muscle in phases of movement / training phases and has to be synthesized again by the body after consumption. Ribose helps by being reabsorbed by the muscle cells and being used up in the formation of ATP.
Effect of ribose
Ribose basically works (as mentioned above) by the ATP synthesis (Adenosine triphosphate synthesis) in the body.
It can be concluded that ribose also has an impact on the performance of the Musculature and the Muscle building Has. There are several studies on this.
In a Danish study from 2004, eight athletes completed a fitness program consisting of sprint units on the bike over seven days. Half of them received 200 mg of ribose per kilogram of body weight, the other half only received a placebo (So a drug without any significant effect, such as glucose).
Before and after training, samples were taken from her Muscle tissue removed and on the ATP concentration examined.
The researchers were able to determine that, as expected, the ATP level was lower in both groups after exercise.
However, after 72 hours, the subjects with ribose supplementation had their ATP level at the starting level before the exercise, while it remained lower with the placebo.
A study by the universities of Florida and Nebraska also found something similar. They gave bodybuilders an intense four-week exercise program while giving them either ten grams of ribose or a placebo made from glucose. Although both groups were able to improve their muscle strength through strength training, the candidates with supplementary ribose performed significantly better.
The effect of ribose can not only be determined in the area of strength sports. Also at Heart disease Ribose was used for a study in Salzburg, Austria.
In patients after a Heart attack or with Circulatory disorders of the heart (Ischemia) the breakdown of ATP could be reduced and the heart function improved.
In addition, there is also a study from Dallas on the effects of ribose Fibromyalgia (FMS). The severe pain of the affected patients is caused by the disturbed oxygen supply to the muscles because of a lack of ATP.
In this case, ribose can be used as Food supplements also be of use.
However, not all research results speak for a clearly positive effect of ribose. For example, the study by the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium could not have a positive effect on the intake of ribose regeneration prove.
In addition to the desired effects, side effects are of course also possible, but these occur above all with high amounts of ribose. Since this substance is a sugar, it naturally exists in patients with Disorders in the insulin and blood sugar balance also the possibility of Hypoglycemia.
You may also be able to use a very high dosage Bowel disorders occur as an undesirable effect of ribose.
Ribose and muscle building
Immediately after its discovery as a Supplement in sports nutrition, ribose was on par with the more popular Creatine posed.
However, there is less research on ribose that shows a positive effect on muscle building. The opinions among the experts therefore still differ widely.
In addition, ribose is not as cheap as the comparable substitute creatine.
For ribose as Food supplements one usually only speaks of D-ribose, not of the second form L-ribose.
The performance enhancing effect of ribose could especially with short, high-intensity loads (like in weight training or bodybuilding) be occupied.
Proponents of this product also recommend it for endurance athletes.
The goal in using ribose as a Supplement is the faster regeneration of the muscles' energy stores.
Between the individual repetitions, sets and training days, the ATP memory should be restored more quickly "charge". This means that high performance can be achieved again earlier. This counteracts muscle building very much.
There it depends on who Musculature subject to increasing stress, the correct and complete execution of the exercise being very important.
Only when the muscle always new and more demanding he also has the incentive to build up additional mass. In addition, the athlete should not enter a phase of energy poverty through ribose intake, which he will then feel in a feeling of weakness.
Ribose is taken like in a creatine regimen Charging phase and Maintenance phase. Ideally, the two supplements Creatine and Ribose combined in one cure. Since they both have a very similar effect on the body's ATP cycle, they support each other in their effect.
The recharge phase takes two to three grams of ribose and five to seven grams of creatine approximately 15 minutes before and immediately after your workout.
From the sixth day of the cure and at the beginning of the maintenance phase, this dose is only given once a day before training (or on non-training days before dinner) taken.
Some manufacturers recommend endurance athletes such as marathon runners or triathletes to take one gram of ribose during training to enable better endurance.
Of course, it is also advisable to combine the ribose intake with a protein-rich diet (possibly also with food supplements) to get better results in Muscle building to achieve.
When used correctly, the manufacturers promise that the ribose preparations will strengthen strength and endurance during training. The Regeneration time is proven shortened, even if the ATP storage is initially naturally reduced immediately after an intensive load.
In addition, ribose should also affect the psyche have a positive effect, as the athletes less tired and exhausted feel.
Also at Ribose there are recommendations for that daily intake. However, these recommendations vary widely. Daily dosages of two to five grams are issued as recommendations, but also higher daily doses, such as up to ten grams can appear as a recommendation. The range of different dosage suggestions is between three and 60 grams per day.
Scientific studies to ribose are mostly with daily doses between 16 and 36 grams carried out.
Becomes too much ribose fed, it is usually through the urine excreted again, or it is converted to glucose and then to glycogen in the liver.
General recommendations regarding dosage are not so easy to make, as is the case individual differences when it is absorbed and processed in the body and every athlete reacts differently to a certain amount of ribose. Everyone should try out for themselves which dosage he or she can manage. Of course, you should start with small doses and then move closer to the higher doses if necessary.
If Ribose e.g. because of a Lack or one Underproduction as Food supplements then the simplest and most common form of intake is this powder.
You can do this on the Internet and in pharmacies Ribose or D-ribose is available as a powder acquire. Depending on the quality of the powder and the manufacturer, the prices for 100 gram Ribose powder between 10 and 20 euros.
As a consumption recommendation for ribose powder you should always follow the Manufacturer information keep on the packaging. In general, the recommendations are between three and 15 grams, taking the dosage at Training days a little higher should be less than on days without training. One teaspoon of ribose powder should be taken at a time half an hour before and half an hour after training occur. Ribose powder can be mixed into different dishes depending on your taste.
There is currently no EU recommendation for the maximum daily dose of ribose, but you should stick to the manufacturer's dosage recommendation and not overdose.
Both Side effects it mostly depends on the Dosage of the ribose on. Side effects usually occur too only in the event of an overdose because ribose is otherwise a natural nutrient in our daily food and the body knows this substance.
When taking ten or more grams Ribose on to empty Temporary hypoglycaemia may occur in the stomach. This can be prevented by not consuming ribose on an empty stomach, or with others Mixes carbohydrates.
Another side effect can be a loose stool be, which has so far only occurred at doses well above ten grams per intake time.
Generally, high dosages of ribose cause occurrence Problems in the stomach and intestines.
However, these symptoms also disappear immediately when the Dosage reduced becomes.
Testimonials of people who take ribose as a dietary supplement often report muscle pain before taking it, one very quick fatigue due to ribose deficiency and Reduction in performance. Ribose is used in the body for the production of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) required. ATP is in the muscle cells in energy converted and is only stored to a certain extent in the muscle cells. If this supply is exhausted, new ATP must be produced and for this the body needs ribose. With a ribose deficiency or a Undersupply symptoms such as muscle pain may occur.
In many experience reports it was described that by taking ribose as a dietary supplement the Symptoms alleviated and people felt better afterwards.
In some people, insufficient production of ribose can lead to a deficiency. The symptoms triggered by this deficiency increase more and more the lower the ribose level is in the body. Slackness and fatigue can also be signs of ribose deficiency. By feeding five to 15 grams of ribose per day (e.g. 5 grams in coffee in the morning) improvements quickly set in and the symptoms disappear completely at some point.
Ribose in oncology
Naturopaths especially say ribose is one antioxidant effect to. That means they are called free radicals in the body "captures“And this prevents harm to the body.
The free radicals are caused by an unhealthy diet, stress and environmental pollution. These include the various chemical substances with which we come into daily contact, for example cleaning products or skin care products but also harmful additives in ready-made foods.
The radicals react very quickly with other molecules in the body and thus destroy the cells. You can use the genes of the cell (DNA) so that the cell begins to divide unchecked. This can then be the start of a Cancer be.
But other diseases can also arise from cells damaged by free radicals. If ribose catches these radicals, it also has a positive effect against cancer.
In cancer therapy, ribose is used together with Potassium ascorbate used. The potassium ascorbate also plays an important role in the Regulation of cell metabolism, which is greatly changed in cancer and is associated with a lack of energy.
Potassium ascorbate becomes one anti-tumor and protective effect against cell mutations said.
In therapy with ribose and potassium ascorbate, the progression of the disease and the formation of Metastases slowed down and the tumor shrunk.
In contrast, some scientists warn against that excessive consumption of sugar, as it has become common in our society.The rapidly growing cancer cells need a lot of energy, in the form of sugar, in order to continue to grow and form metastases.
Ribose is also required by the mutated cells, as it is used to carry the genes of the cancer cell (DNA and RNA) can be reproduced. This is the basis for building new cells.
Because of this assumption, there are also therapeutic approaches that are strong low-sugar diet provide for the tumor, so to speak "starve out“.
Some experts even consider this treatment to be more effective than a conventional one chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Of course, this theory is not undisputed. Such a restricted diet is very difficult and not without risks for many tumor patients who are already weakened.
Since ribose is a sugar and it also occurs in nature, the side effects are limited. So far, however, not very many studies have looked at the ingestion of ribose over a longer period of time. Consequently It is not yet really possible to make a reliable statement about possible side effects with ribose. Some of the studies that have been carried out so far have not found any side effects. However, the different study designs are either too short to investigate long-term consequences or the test group is too small or not balanced enough. For example, in a study in which 20 grams of ribose was administered per day for two weeks, there were no side effects blood- and liver values are determined.
If Food supplements takes, which contain not only ribose, but also other active ingredients, then of course additional side effects can occur due to the other active ingredients. Gastrointestinal problems how diarrhea, Vomit, nausea, stomach pain, Inflammation of the oral mucosa, Skin inflammation, Constipation, Indigestion, etc ... can be the result.
Side effects only occur when taking ribose if you Ribose combined with other meanswhich may have side effects, or if you are health-wise not completely fit is. Since ribose is a sugar, one should be aware that while high doses do not necessarily lead to side effects, they do hypoglycemic consequences can come. Any athlete who wants to consume ribose should consult their doctor beforehand, especially if one diabetic is.
A Hypoglycemia (Hypoglycaemia) can have serious consequences. The first signs are dizziness, sweat, Cravings and Palpitations. Next nausea and a headache can also Word finding disorders, Talkativeness, Incoordination, limited awareness, cramps to the point of unconsciousness. Therefore, you should always inform yourself beforehand before taking a dietary supplement. These symptoms result from a low blood sugar levels, whereby many processes in the body can no longer run optimally.
Even if side effects are generally not known when taking ribose, one should Do not keep the dosage too high. Because the higher the dosage, the higher the likelihood of indigestion. Pregnant women should also benefit from a Supplementation it is better to refrain from ribose until it has been fully clarified through studies.
Ribulose is a so-called Derivative of ribose, both are not to be confused with one another.
Ribulose has that same molecular formula and thus the same number of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms as ribose, but these are composed differently and thus give the two substances complete different chemical properties.
Ribulose is also a Monosaccharide, that is, a simple sugar. It has a so-called keto group and five carbon atoms, so it belongs to both the ketoses and the pentoses.
Ribulose can be found in all plants, it is there from the plant metabolism. In addition, it occurs as an intermediate in the metabolism of bacteria in front. In plants, ribulose plays a major role in the so-called Calvin cycle, in which with the help of ATP (Energy carrier of the cells) and NADPH (Enzyme for cell metabolism) from carbon dioxide (CO2) glucose is formed.
The plant can then use this sugar as an energy supplier. Another biochemical process in which ribulose is involved is Pentose Phosphate Cycle. This is a metabolic pathway in the human body in which above all Ribose-5-phosphate and other substances that are crucial for (energy) metabolism are formed.
It then becomes the building blocks of DNA and RNA (Nucleotides) used. The pentose phosphate cycle and the resulting NADPH are necessary for the Synthesis of fatty acids.
Therefore, the cycle is particularly active in liver cells and fat cells. But also in some cells of the Testicle and in the cells of the endocrine glands in the Adrenal cortex (this is where part of the steroid synthesis takes place) finds the Pentose Phosphate Cycle instead of.
If this metabolic process no longer proceeds without errors, sufficient NADPH can no longer be produced. Additionally occurs oxidative stress (high concentration of a harmful form of oxygen) on, this deficiency can turn into a Hemolysis (Dissolution of red blood cells) become noticeable.
Structure and classification
Ribose-5-phosphate is a carbohydrate, more precisely a Simple sugars (Monosaccharide). In their basic structure, monosaccharides consist of a chain with several (at least three) Carbon atoms. They are the basic building block for all other carbohydrates and can become too Double sugars (Disaccharides), Polysaccharides (Oligosaccharides) and Multiple sugars (Polysaccharides) connect with each other.
Has ribose-5-phosphate five carbon atoms and can therefore belong to the chemical group of Pentoses (Greek pente = five) be classified. Pentoses are generally indispensable for the metabolism in organs. For example, they play at the Formation of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and photosynthesis play a major role.
Ribose5 phosphate has a number of other functions in our body. It belongs to the Pentose phosphate route, one way of Utilization of carbohydrates represents in our organism. Ribose5 phosphate, for example, helps with Processing glucose into energy. It is also used in Synthesis of building blocks for our RNA, from Coenzymes and amino acids. Generally speaking, ribose 5 phosphate helps many construction processes in our body and is therefore also called Metabolite (Builder). With a balanced diet, a person normally always has enough ribose-phosphate stored in the body. However, as a dietary supplement it can play a role in sports performance increase and the Energy supply play.
The molecular formula of ribose-5-phosphate is C5H11O8P. Ribose-5-phosphate also has something called it Stereoisomer. This refers to a molecule that has the same number of atoms and chemical groups, but they differ in their spatial arrangement.
More precisely, ribose-5-phosphate is actually a Enantiomer. This in turn means that the two different arrangements of the molecule are exactly mirror images of each other. For the human metabolism, however, only the shape of the D-ribose-5-phosphate significant. The letter "D" is derived from the Latin word "dextro"From what"right“Means. The stereoisomer is denoted by the letter "L."Marked, it stands for"levo", what with "Left“Is translated. In chemistry, these names are derived from whether the decisive one functional group to the right or to the left on the basic structure of the molecule.
Ribose-5-phosphate can be found in the body blood, in the saliva and on closer inspection in the Mitochondria and the cell plasma.
Meaning of pentose-5-phosphate
Pentose-5-phosphate plays a big role in that Production of nucleotides, Coenzymes and amino acids. Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of our genetic material, i.e. the DNA (Carrier of our genetic code) and RNA ("Construction instructions" for different proteins etc.).
From a chemical point of view, a nucleotide consists of a phosphate component, a sugar component and a base component. An important, relatively well-known nucleotide is that ATP (Adenosine triphosphate, energy carrier in the cells).
Coenzymes are molecules that are specific for the function Enzymes are essential. They bind to the particular enzyme and make it effective. Also the coenzyme changes during the chemical reaction of the enzyme and then has to return to its restored to its original state become. Only then can it "help" an enzyme again.
Lastly, ribose-5-phosphate is also indispensable for the synthesis of amino acids. Amino acids are the basic building blocks of human Proteins. They are not exclusively produced in the body, some of them have to be ingested through food become (essential amino acids). This can be done by vegetable food (in cereals or legumes) or through animal food (for example in muscle meat) happen.
The human organism could not exist without amino acids. You are, so to speak, involved in all body processes. We insist 20% from proteinswhich in turn are made up of amino acids. The concentration of proteins in the is particularly high Muscles, the bone and in the skin. In some cases, amino acids are also administered specifically in medicine to compensate for a possible deficiency.
Pentose Phosphate Cycle
Ribose-5-phosphate is produced by the so-called Pentose Phosphate Cyclethat takes place in the cells of the human body. Part of this biochemical process is ongoing parallel to glycolysis. Glycolysis, in turn, is that metabolic pathway of breakdown of glucose and is considered to be the first part of glucose metabolism. All carbohydrates and their chemical breakdown pathways have to do with glycolysis sooner or later.
In the pentose phosphate cycle, NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate) educated. This substance also plays a major role in the Fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, the pentose phosphate cycle is particularly strong in tissues that require a lot of NADPH.
These include Liver cells, Fat cells and the Gland cells of the female breast during breastfeeding.
Also the red blood cells need the NADPH from the pentose phosphate cycle. The tripeptide Glutathione required in order for a sufficient amount of NADPH hemoglobin to care. Hemoglobin, in turn, gives red blood cells the ability to To transport oxygen. If there is a lack of functioning enzymes for the pentose phosphate cycle, sufficient NADPH can no longer be produced and, among other things, Destruction of the red blood cells (Erythrocytes), to the so-called Hemolysis.
Other food supplements
For more information, see the following Food supplements:
- amino acids
- Weight gainer
- Tribulus Terrestris