Synonyms in a broader sense

Supplements, Food supplements, Sports nutrition, performance enhancer, doping

English: Supplements

What are supplements?

Supplements, along with a healthy diet and exercise, can help you achieve your athletic goals faster.

Supplements are Food supplementswhich is particularly suitable for athletes who consume more of these so-called supplements athletic performance should enable.
in the performance-oriented sport we are currently trying to optimize performance with all available legal means in order to be as prepared as possible on the day of the competition. In addition to other aspects, the specific intake of permitted dietary supplements is often (too?) Ascribed to have great effects.

Positive doping cases through (allegedly) contaminated supplements have led to uncertainty about the purity of supplements in recent years. Studies have confirmed that there is a risk of contaminated supplements !!!
Furthermore, the most important supplements should be presented in a clearly structured way with their purpose, function and dosage.
Nevertheless, the dietary supplements are an integral part of performance-oriented sport.

You can find more information on the subject here Muscle building and nutrition


As Supplements (engl. Supplements) or Food supplements are compounds that are supplied to the body from the outside in addition to basic nutrition.
Supplements should not be taken over a long period of time and without advice from a specialist. In principle, the principles of healthy basic nutrition must also be observed by those who do sport. Taking supplements can in no case be incorrect or unbalanced nutrition balance.
In no way are there any instructions or recommendations for taking the Supplements given or advertised for certain products.
Supplementation with permitted food supplements should only be targeted and individually coordinated by a specialist based on an optimal one Basic nutrition be performed.

The principles of supplementation should be observed. These are briefly summarized:

  1. Supplements / sports nutrition are just one piece of the mosaic in the overall mosaic of physical performance.
  2. No substances are used that are on the doping list.
  3. The long-term health of the athlete is the focus when taking supplements.
  4. Supplementation should be tailored to the individual. Possible side effects and ethical aspects should be considered when consuming supplements. The exact application and dosage of the supplements is discussed with the supervising environment and recorded in writing.
  5. In order to keep the risk of contamination with doping substances as low as possible, orders from the Internet and from unknown producers should be avoided.

Muscle building

Supplements can support athletes in their goals, especially in building muscle. However, the effectiveness is not guaranteed in all cases.

In order to become even stronger and look even more muscular, strength athletes and bodybuilders go to their physical limits and usually combine their training with various dietary supplements or supplements.
Starting with basic nutrients like

  • Fats
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Creatine
  • BCAA
  • L-carnitine
  • Pyruvate
  • Weight gainer
  • Ribose
  • Protein powder

The selection is almost endless and many resources promise great success. However, many of the effects of these supplements have not been scientifically proven, so that there is a lot of ignorance about the effects, side effects and dosages.
Important supplements, whose effectiveness is beyond doubt, are protein concentrates, vitamins and minerals, amino acids, creatine and carbohydrates. These substances stimulate such as Proteins help build muscle after training or, like amino acids, have a positive effect on energy metabolism. Creatine increases the volume of the muscle cells and thus of the entire muscle. Each individual supplement has its own effect and dosage, which you should always adhere to.

Furthermore, the supplements can be divided into other subgroups. There is the group of basic supplements like:

  • Vitamin tablets
  • magnesium
  • zinc
  • Omega-3 fatty acids

Among the supplements for weight loss can be found:

  • caffeine
  • Green tea
  • Creatine
  • Protein powder

There are also muscle building supplements such as:

  • Whey protein powder
  • Creatine
  • Monohydrate
  • Trace elements that support muscle building.

The newest group relates to supplements for vegetarians and vegans:

  • Protein powder
  • Creatine
  • L-carnitine
  • Beta alanine

For weight training beginners, protein shakes are best after a workout to support muscle building and regeneration. When taking a shake after every training session, you usually can't go wrong and you can't overdose.
Advanced athletes also take weight gainers to promote mass growth and increase their muscle mass. Creatine can generate further strength and mass gains and should only be taken with sufficient fluids. Strength athletes who want to get the last percent out of their body supplement BCAAs or beta-alanine.

Other supplements for building muscle:

Caffeine promotes fat burning and thus provides more energy. In addition, blood pressure and pulse rate increase, the body becomes more efficient and exhausted more slowly.

Glutamine can be used to ensure that the protein is not used to generate energy during training until the muscles are exhausted, but is instead directly transferred to muscle building. The recommended dosage is five to ten grams before and after a training session.

Overview of the various supplements


This nutrient is found in a great many foods again and is for the areas of Bodybuilding and des Strength sports of essential importance. carbohydrates are the most important energy supplier in the human body, without which an immediate energy supply cannot be thought of.
Besides the Muscles are above all that brain and the human Nervous system dependent on carbohydrates.
You can in complex carbohydrates (Rice, pasta, potatoes, ...) and simple carbohydrates (Sugar, confectionery, ...) subdivide. Only a balanced diet with enough carbohydrates protein and fat ensures optimal muscle growth. Supplements can also be helpful here. One should pay particular attention to this finished products and Avoid confectionery.

If you want to add more carbohydrates to your normal diet, you can buy carbohydrates in isolation in shops and that Add protein shake. Long-chain maltodextrin or Vitargo are well-known supplements that can also be bought. When taking carbohydrates, it is recommended on training days 35g Mix carbohydrates into the protein shake in the morning and after training another 50g to put in the shake. On On the other hand, three grams are enough for days without training in the morning.

Please also read our topic on this carbohydrates.


Will also be D-ribose called and is a Monosaccharide (Polysaccharides), which occurs in all plant and animal cells. The body needs ribose in the production of ATP, that in turn for the entire metabolism, but above all for the Energy supply is needed.
The molecule breaks down and is converted back into ATP with the help of ribose. For strength and endurance athletes, a large part of the energy required is from the Muscles claimed. Supplements such as ribose can shorten ATP production and thus also the regeneration phases. Usually the Body make ribose itself and in addition, small amounts can be caused by the Ingestion of nuts, berries or spinach. Also in vegetable oils Ribose occurs and is produced less and less in the human body, especially with age.
Supplementation can also make sense here outside of sport. As Food supplements you can buy ribose in powder form, dissolve it in water and drink it. The maximum dosage should be three to five grams and not be exceeded.

Please also read our topic on this Ribose.


Pyruvate is also known as pyruvic acid and is produced as a metabolic product at the end of the Sugar metabolism. Taking pyruvate as a supplement can lead to weight loss.
Scientific studies have shown that the Reducing body fat is cranked, the yo-yo effect is avoided and the Endurance performance is improved. With a seven-day intake of pyruvate, STANKO (1990) was able to demonstrate an increase in endurance performance in the 1990s. For the Increased fat loss However, there is no scientifically proven evidence of a higher heat emission. Pyruvate occurs naturally in small amounts in plant-based foods. For example, 100 grams of a red apple contains 450 mg of pyruvate.

In the dosage It is recommended to take pyruvate supplements combined with a diet for six weeks. The maximum dosage per day is about 6 grams. Of that one should 3 grams before training ingest to the effect of increased Fat burning to crank.

So if you want to increase fat loss and endurance, you can buy pyruvate as a supplement in the form of drinking ampoules. As side effects, increased at high doses, Stomach cramps and diarrhea occur.

Please also read our topic on this Pyruvate.


Proteins are an important nutritional supplement for weight training.

This nutrient group is particularly important in bodybuilding and weight training, as proteins play an important role in the muscle building phase. Protein is made up of many different substances (BCAA, L-glutamine, L-arginine, ...) in a chain form. The longer these chains that make up the protein, the harder it is to digest the protein.

The advantages of taking supplements with protein in weight training are the promotion of muscle building, the maintenance of existing tissue and the stepping in as a third energy carrier after fat and carbohydrates.
Especially in competitive sports, it makes sense to take additional protein through supplements. When ingesting it, it should be noted that some foods contain more protein than others. For strength athletes who want to build up their muscle mass, it is important to consume around two grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Immediately after training, e.g. a protein shake to support the growth stimulus of the muscles.

Please also read our topics Protein or protein powder for building muscle


The effect of the Protein shakes is often justified by the fact that protein products are contaminated with steroids

amino acids

amino acids are next to Fats and Carbohydrates an energy source, but have nitrogen compared to the other two substances.
In addition, amino acids are the only ones capable of doing this skin, hair, organs and tissue to build. Thus, the amino acids can also be called Basic building blocks of the entire human body consider.
Furthermore, amino acids are also on metabolism involved and regulate the processes in the human body. Without these supplements a person cannot live or survive healthy.
For athlete The reason amino acids are so important is because they are an Establishment and renewal processes involved in the body, and strengthened in muscle tissue, bones and skin occurrence. Some amino acids promote e.g. the Blood circulation and are therefore not uninteresting for athletes. Especially in the Weight training area it quickly became known that a lack of amino acids leads to a loss of performance, and so people started to supplement this substance. However, if you provide your body with sufficient amino acids, then muscle growth can even benefit. The best known and most important amino acid for strength athletes is the so-called BCAA.


BCAA is a branched-chain amino acid and is one of the essential amino acids that you have to take in through food, as the body cannot synthesize it itself. BCAA describes a group rather than a specific amino acid and that includes leucine, valine and isoleucine.
Especially in bodybuilding, everyone knows these amino acids and they ensure an increase in muscle growth and also support many other, also vital functions in the body. The energy supply for the muscles is also carried by the BCAA, which is one of the supplements, and they can even help with diseases and metabolic problems.
Leucine is particularly important in building and maintaining muscle tissue. Supplements such as BCAA can also be effective for weight loss. Studies have found that a high consumption of BCAA is related to a low incidence of obesity. BCAA are mainly found in very protein-rich foods and with a normal, balanced and healthy diet, you should consume enough BCAA without any problems. The correct dosage and intake of BCAA depends on many factors such as the level of activity, body weight or size

Please also read our topic: BCAA- You have to pay attention to this


Glutamine is one above all below Strength athletes known amino acid, the most common of all amino acids in the muscle occurs and is therefore most effective. This Food supplements is through several modes of action for the area of Bodybuilding and Strength sports Interesting. For one thing, it will Cell volume of muscle cells increases, the muscle's ability to regenerate improves, the rate of protein absorption is increased and the unwanted breakdown of muscle mass is reduced.

Bodybuilders and strength athletes should stop taking glutamine split three different times. For one thing, you should Apply before trainingto prevent muscle breakdown. If you take supplements like glutamine after a workout, this serves to improve the To stimulate muscle building and increase cell volume. The last time to take it is before going to bed. This important point in time ensures that the Minimal muscle loss overnight runs and regeneration is improved. Feeding it in the morning after getting up can help prevent any problems that may have arisen during the night Nutrient supply gaps to bridge and close. When it comes to the dosage of glutamine, one should consider the Daily maximum of 25 grams per day do not exceed.

Please also read our topic on this Glutamine.


Behind the letter HMB an organic acid hides with one essential amino acid Leucine, which is also called “beta hydroxy beta methylbutyrate”. The body can produce up to 0.3 grams of this supplement per day. The additional feed as Food supplements one hopes for an increase in strength in weight training Increase in muscle mass. In addition, HMB ensures that the Body fat percentage is reduced and also that immune system can benefit from it and become more robust.
The side effects are currently still lacking in-depth studies with scientifically proven results for supplements like this one, but the Acne formation get supported. Long-term side effects have hardly been researched so far, so that one should generally use one before taking HMB doctor should get in touch.

In the dosage one should pay attention to it between 3 and 6 grams per day feed. Higher dosages are not considered safe, so the general recommendation is: 3 grams divided over 3 times of 1 gram each is an optimal start.


L-carnitine is a vitamin-like and essential nutrient for the human body. It is one Protein compound and sits down from two amino acids together.
Approx. 90% of the body's L-carnitine is in muscle and heart and contribute there Energy generation at. Other positive effects are a positive influence on fatigue, one Strengthening the immune system, one Increase in strength gainss and a Increase in endurance performance.
In addition to ingestion through food, L-carnitine can also be taken with the help of supplements. A distinction is made in the dosage two times of intake. On the one hand with general exhaustion with a Dosage of 300 mg and 500 mg. And during one diet, where between 750 mg and 2000 mg fed per day.
A Overdose one cannot expect that with L-carnitine excess L-carnitine excreted easily can be. Since top athletes tend to forego a lot of meat in their diet, many carbohydrates To take in, the additional intake of L-carnitine is recommended.

Please also read our topic on this L-carnitine


Behind the name CLA (conjugated linoleum acid) hides the conjugated linoleum acid that leads to the unsaturated fatty acids heard.
Especially Strength athletes resort to this remedy as it becomes a high protein diet fits wonderfully as a supplement. In general, CLA ensures that Cholesterol level in the blood stable at one level to keep.
This can be influenced by various eating habits and use other supplements how BCAA, protein, etc. In connection with proteins, CLA unfolds its best mode of action, whereby one should make sure that one supplies protein throughout the day. CLA comes naturally in Meat and dairy products in front. However, you also consume a large part of the rather undesirable saturated fatty acids and this is usually avoided. Therefore, the supplementation of CLA offers itself in order to promote muscle building and fat loss.
The best-selling CLA in the world is that Tonalin® CLA and will be out Safflower oil won.
All Benefits of CLA in a nutshell: reducing fat storage, increasing fat breakdown in cells, increasing metabolism and reducing fat cells in the body.

Please also read our topic on this CLA


The International Society for Sports Nutrition (ISSN) confirmed that creatine is the most effective legally available supplement available on the open market. Good effects are to be expected, especially in the area of ​​strength sports and endurance sports, provided that the intake and use is appropriate and properly dosed. The effect is particularly noticeable in the energy supply, where creatine plays an important role in muscle contraction. In addition, creatine increases the volume of the muscle cells, so that the entire muscle becomes larger. You should make sure that you drink enough fluids. You should plan for an additional five liters of water per day.

In the natural diet, creatine is mainly found in meat and fish. The body needs around two grams of creatine per day, of which it can produce around one gram itself. The other half must be taken in through food or supplements. Supplementation therefore makes a lot of sense if there is an increased need for creatine through strength or endurance training.
When it comes to the dosage of creatine, more is not necessarily better. Therefore you should start with small amounts and wait for the effect before you dose too high. It can be taken in combination with carbohydrates, as these optimize absorption into the bloodstream and thus into the muscle fibers.

Please also read our topic on this

  • Creatine
  • How useful is creatine?
  • Creatine powder
  • The effects of creatine

Tribulus terrestris

Tribulus terrestris is the Latin name for the earth thorn or earth star. This thorn plant contains among other things Saponins (a steroid-like substance) who are in the bodybuilding scene as Anabolic steroids are known.
In the form of Powders and capsules you can add Tribulus terrestris and so that Muscle growth through increased Water retention stimulate in the tissue as well as an increase in Endurance performance cause. When taking Tribulus capsules should be on a balanced nutrition such as To do sports be respected. The capsules can do this between 1200 mg and 2000 mg of the root extract. However, the recommended daily dose is 1200 mg.
Although the supplement has its reputation no side effects cause, athletes complained after a long period of use Gastrointestinal problems. However, these side effects can affect one Overdose and reducing the daily intake of these supplements should reduce the side effects. No other side effects on humans are known and so far could only be detected in animals.

You can also read our topic on this Tribulus terrestris

Weight gainer

Weight gainer are supplements that are included in the Weight training- and Bodybuilding-Scene are widespread and are intended to appeal to athletes in the Weight gain help. Especially people who because of their good metabolism Are very slim, but gain little mass, can benefit from weight gainers.
To one Weight gain To achieve this, weight gainers contain a large proportion carbohydrates mixed with Proteins, Fats, Vitamins and Trace elements. The high energy content of the weight gainer can occasionally lead to an increase in fat mass, which is incorrectly interpreted as muscle growth. People the one slower metabolism should therefore avoid weight gainer because there is a risk of building fat mass. In addition to the effect of building muscle, weight gainers will also have a positive influence on the body Duration of the intensive training phases to have.

The weight gainer should stop taking it right after a workout take place so that the emptied energy storage can be filled again and built more muscle mass faster can be. In some cases, even two to three weight gainers shakes can be drunk throughout the day in order to gain weight. Athletes who value a low body fat percentage should, however, do better without these supplements.

Please also read our topic on this Weight gainer