Sex hormone, androgen, androstane, sex hormones
Testosterone is a derivative of the sex hormone (Androgen). Testosterone occurs in both sexes, but differs in terms of concentration and effects. The tesotosterone is derived from testis (Testicles) and steroid. Ernst Lageur was the "inventor" of testosterone when he was the first to extract bull testicles.
In men, testosterone is primarily produced in the testicles. Other places of production are the adrenal glands, where other androgens are also produced. In women, testosterone is produced in small quantities in the ovaries and adrenal glands.
Progestreon is an intermediate for the synthesis of testosterone.
In the seminiferous tubules, testosterone causes the spermatids to mature into sperm. In men / boys, testosterone causes the penis, scrotum and secondary sexual characteristics to develop.
Outside of the genital organs, this hormone causes body hair to grow, excluding scalp hair. In addition, the testosterone has an anabolic effect, and thus promotes muscle building. A positive effect on endurance sports has not yet been scientifically proven. Tesosterone promotes new cartilage and bone formation and increases sexual desire. In addition, the testosterone has an increasing effect on the drive to aggression.
In women, an external supply of testosterone leads to masculinization (Virilization). The voice becomes deeper, the body hair increases and the genital organs grow. In addition, an increased incidence of depression was found in women with an elevated testosterone level.
The testosterone content in the blouse is determined. Blood is usually drawn in the early morning hours, as testosterone levels fluctuate during the day.
The testosterone is going to a protein bound and transported through the blood in the human body. This testosterone complex reaches the target organ via the blood. This target organ must have a corresponding receptor for testosterone. The protein to which testosterone binds is called Globulin (SHBG). Testosterone is transported to the seminiferous tubules via the androgen binding protein of the Sertoli cells.
The anabolic effect des testosterone is often considered in exercise Doping agents abused. In sports in which an increased proportion of muscle mass has a positive effect, athletes in recent years have increasingly resorted to these illegal methods to accelerate muscle building and to overcome natural performance limits. The danger of this doping is not only a possible loss of prestige, but also serious physical damage.
The most common sports are Bodybuilding and sports with high-speed movements such as sprinting and throwing disciplines in athletics.
Primarily used in sport are the short chain ester (Propionate), medium chain ester (Enanthate / cypionate) and long chain ester (Undecanoate, bucciclate). Most of the trade takes place on the black market.
Among the most frequently observed Side effects, especially in the form of abuse through overdose are the following:
- Liver disease
- Kidney damage
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system
- Gynecomastia (Breeding in men)
- Steroid acne please refer: acne
- Mental illnesses like depression
- Poor memory performance
- Decrease in sperm count
- Reduction of the testicles